Classical Gluonic Topic

Verbal Satellites

Keywords: verbs, satellites

Classical Gluonic uses a system of verbal satellites that have a number of uses - they can form radial derivations that idiomatically define a family of verbs based on a single main verb, and they are commonly used to indicate direction of motion, where manner is encoded in the verb. This aspect of CG is actually similar to English, a fact that is often remarked upon. As in English, satellites typically lead a double life as prepositions and/or adverbs.

Common Verbal Satellites
Bourque Sanderson Base Meaning Usage
PWÁ pwaa in, at habitual, repeated action
TAM tam from, away termination, diminution
K'Ó khoo through completion, augmentation, intensification
AwQ awq over sustained effort
FWEN fwen under incipient action
ÝN* yynn to becoming
M*Y mmy before thwarted or false action
TE-T'E tette up completed action, discrete action, change in state
P'Aj phaj down action sustained to completion

This system seems a little haphazard and there are hints that there may have been an original design with more of the thoughtful symmetry normally associated with Classical Gluonic. This system seems to have been intended as a way of deriving verbs while needing less roots. It does function in that manner, but it seems that very early on in the language's history, the originally-intended, crisp categories shifted and became more colloquial and random.

Essentially, it is virtually impossible to reliably predict what a verb root/satellite combination will mean other than just learning it. That said, with time and study it comes to make a kind of sense.

A verb with a satellite is in a very real sense a different verb than its root without a satellite.

Generally, "function verbs" like copulas and modals can't take satellites, but this isn't a hard and fast rule.


SJON TE-T'E (make up) - to succeed (v. ntr.)

Sjonsu gorano'go tette.

"The child succeeds."

SWÁ K'Ó (know through) - to understand (v. tr.)

Swaasule gorano gajme khoo.

"The child understands the dog."


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