The Great Game: Kanhlengo Topic

Phonology and Romanisation

Keywords: phonology, romanisation, orthography, phonotactics, prosody

This stub article is where all matters pertaining the the language's phonology and its romanisation will eventually go.

Law of Anglo-Pronounceability

Every phoneme that is not in the standard English phonology must have an allophone that is in the standard English phonology.


This stub section contains the table and description of consonants. Consonants are now closed and no more may be added.

Table 1: Consonants
  Labial  Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m     (n)   ɳ  ɲ    
Stop pʰ  p̚ ³     (tʰ  d)   ʈʰ  ɖ    k ²  (ɡ)  
Fricative   f  v θ  ð s  z (ʃ) ʂ   x  ɣ (h)
Lateral Fricative         ɬ~l ¹        
Approximant ʍ~h͡w  w     (ɹ)     (j)    
Tap           ɽ       

1. /l/ is an allophone of ɬ after consonants.

2. There are no velar stop phonemes other than /k/.

3. [p̚] occurs only word-finally.

4. If a retroflex consonant forms a cluster at a word-internal syllable boundary, it loses its retroflex feature. /ɳ/ /ʈʰ/ /ɖ/ become alveolar /n/ /tʰ/ /d/, /ʂ/ becomes /ʃ/ and /ɽ/ becomes an alveolar approximant, /ɹ/.

5. [h] and [g] are allophones of /x/ and /ɣ/ respectively at the beginning of a word.

6. /ɲ/ and /j/ are allophones in free variation, except following a vowel, when it is always /j/.


This stub section has the table of vowels.

The Vowel phoneme section has been officially closed, so no more may be added.

Table 2: Vowels
  Front Back
Close i u
Close Mid e o
Open Mid  ɛ ɔ
Open æ  

Vowels retain their full quality in all environments.

Add any further clarifications required about allowed diphthongs etc. here.


This stub section is for the romanization.,

<i> = i
<ë> = e
<e> = ɛ
<æ> = æ
<u> = u
<o> = o
<a> = ɔ

<hl> = ɬ~l
<f> = f
<v> = v
<ü> = w
<hü> = ʍ
<k> = k
<p> (not word-final), <pp> (word-final) = pʰ
<p> (word-final) = p̚
<n> = ɳ ~ n
<d> = ɖ ~ d
<t> = ʈʰ ~ tʰ
<hs> = ʂ ~ ʃ
<r> = ɽ ~ ɹ
<dd> = ð
<ht> = θ
<s> = s
<z> = z 
<x> = x ~ h
<g> = ɣ ~ ɡ
<m> = m
<ñ> = ɲ ~ j

Alphabetical order:
a æ d dd e ë f g i k hl m n ñ o p (pp) r s hs t ht u ü hü v x z
The digraph <pp> is used only word-finally, so it's relevant when sorting, but not when reciting the alphabet.
If we allow other Latin letters in loanwords (which is not decided yet), they're put in the obvious place.

Romanization letter names: xam, xæ, dad, ddadd, xem, xë, faf, gag, xim, kak, hlahl, mam, nan, ñañ, xo, pap, rar, sas, hsahs, tat, htaht, xum, üaü, hüahü, vav, xax, zaz
To use them as nouns, add hlæ- to the front.


The standard syllable structure is CV(C).

Consonant clusters consisting of S+{F, V, K, G, or Ü} used to be permissible (word-initially only). Although they have since dropped out of the standard language, they have been retained for poetic effect and for affectation of exceptionally high register (e.g. laws, official announcements, mythos).

Consonant clusters may only begin with f, p, ü, k, n, t, r, s, x, m, or ñ. (That is, only these consonants may end a syllable word-medially.)

While words may freely end in hl, v, hü, pp, d, hs, dd, ht, z, or g, if a suffix is added to the word that would force an illegal cluster, these consonants transform into one of the legal cluster-starting consonants as follows:

hl, dd -> ñ, v -> ü, hü -> f, pp -> p, d, ht -> t, hs, z -> s, g -> x.

Suffixes that have vowel-initial forms do not cause these mutations, as they would not cause an illegal cluster.

Repeated consonants at syllable boundaries are geminated in pronunciation.

Stress and Prosody

This conlang is a stressed language, with fixed stress on the penultimate syllable of every unaffixed native word.

In affixed or non-native words, an acute accent can be placed on a vowel to mark stress (on a syllable that would not be stressed by default). In the case of ë, a macron is used instead.

Roots, Syllabification and Word Shape

This section is for making statements about the general tendency of the language in terms of the word shape of the langauge, such as the number of syllables typically found in a root.


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